Geotechnical and geological engineering with melanges, fault rocks and other bimrocks

Dr. Edmund Medley
Medellín Colombia, 18 to 22 September 2017

Medley, E., 2017. Ingeniería geológica y geotécnica con melágenos, rocas de falla y otros bloques en matriz de rocas (Geotechnical and geological engineering with melanges, fault rocks and other bimrocks). Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellín: 18 al 22 de septiembre de 2017.

Memorias

About

El curso fue dictado en idioma Inglés sin traducción. Los temas que se trataron en los días del curso fueron los siguientes.

  1. Introducción a los bimrocks.
  2. Investigación de campo y caracterización de los bimrocks.
  3. Evaluación de las propiedades geomecánicas de los bimrocks.
  4. Incertidumbres cuando se trabaja con bimrocks.
  5. Taludes, túneles y construcción en bimrocks.
  6. Algunas aproximaciones empíricas para trabajar con bimrocks.
  7. Experiencia práctica y casos históricos.
  8. Ideas para la investigación

Lugar:
Aula Máxima de la Facultad de Minas; Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Medellín - Antioquia, Colombia.

El curso fue dictado por el Doctor Ingeniero Geólogo. Edmundo Medley.

Edmundo Medley es Ingeniero Geológo de la Universidad de Columbia Británica con énfasis en Geotécnia, maestro en Ingeniería Geotécnica de la Universidad de California en Berkeley y Doctor en Ingeniería Geotécnica de la misma universidad. Es miembro de la Asociación de Ingenieros Geólogos y Medioambientales (AEG), Unión Americana de Geofísicos (AGU), Sociedad Americana de Ingenieros Civiles (ASCE), entre otras asociaciones. Se ha desempeñado como consultor por más de treinta años en diferentes estados de EE.UU. (e.g. California, Nevada, Hawai) y países como Canadá, Irán, Taiwan, Guam, Papua Nueva Guinea y Reino Unido. Fue profesor e investigador de la Universidad de California en Berkley (EE.UU.); y de la Real Escuela de Minas, Colegio Imperial de Lóndres y La Universidad de Cambridge (Reino Unido) y disertante de varios cursos cortos en universidades alrededor del mundo.

INTRODUCTION

The Research Group about Geotechnics, the research subdivision on Block in Matrix Soil (Bims) of the Department of Civil Engineering is pleased to have Doctor Edmud Medley's visit at the National University of Colombia (in Medellín headquarters) in order for him facilitate a course on Block in Matrix Rocks (Bimrocks).

Our surroundings is characterized by an inter-mountain valley called the Aburrá Valley, close to the Antioquian Batholith inside the central range of the Northern part of the Andes, in a geographical latitude of only six degrees northern to the Equator central line of the Earth.

This region is a mountainous place, with hard metamorphic but weathered rock masses in a tropical rainy region, with high tectonic compressive activities in the past and at present, with medium to low level earthquakes and with a rail and road network trying to communicate a conurbation with around four millions of individuals.

All these conditions together are not common in South America (not even common in Ecuador or Venezuela, our neighbors); we are only comparable to some regions in some islands of northern Oceania and some other islands at the south east of Asia (e.g. Papua New Guinea and Malaysia).

For this special situation we need to be aware, because we have to develop our knowledge in order to face and mitigate the problems of the coming years related to engineering geology, geotechnics, geological risk management and environmental engineering.

One of the problems in this context and in this region is undoubtedly the nowadays geomaterial called Bimsoil, an acronym of the word Blocks in Matrix Soils a counterpart material to the geomaterial called Bimrocks meaning Blocks in Matrix Rocks.

Bimsoils and Bimrocks have been studied in the past under a variety of specific differentiable names, for example: heterogeneous materials, chaotic materials, compound materials, crushed breccias, crushed conglomerades, alluvions, colluvions, among other material names. The geotechnical definition BIMs give us today a single name that groups heterogeneous geomaterials, this name is giving us the possibility to unify a particular theoretical frame.

As the history will tell us, the term bimrock first emerged when geologists started to pay attention to the geotechnical behavior of melanges in the western coast of the United States. Also Bimrocks have been studied in the southern Europe.

The first attempts to develop a new knowledge on the mechanical behavior of these materials emerged from bimrocks; but, a theoretical frame about the mechanical behavior for bimrocks or bimsoils is not ready.

This week, we will have the honor to hear the lectures of one of those engineers who worked intensively in order to understand the mechanical behavior of bimrocks. I have the pleasure to present Doctor Edmund Medley who has accepted our invitation. Also, the audience will debate with Doctor Medley our concepts on Bims in a wide context. Thank you Doctor Medley for being here this week with us. Your are very welcome here in Medellin and the audience is now under your control.

Prof. Ludger O. Suarez-Burgoa
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Medellin, September 18, 2017.

DOCUMENTS

In proceedings

  1. Medley, E. and Lindquist, E.S., 1995. The engineering significance of the scale-independence of some Franciscan melanges in California, USA. In: J.J.K. Daemen and R.A. Schultz (eds.), Proceedings of the 35th Rock Mechanics U.S. Symposium, Nevada (June): 907-914.
  2. Medley, E.W. and Zekkos, D., 2011, Geopractitioner approaches to working with antisocial mélanges, in Wakabayashi, J., and Dilek, Y., eds., Mélanges: Processes of Formation and Societal Significance: Geological Society of America Special Paper 480, p. 261–277, doi:10.1130/2011.2480(13).
  3. Roadfier, J.W., Forrest, M.P. and Lindquist, E.S., 2009. Evaluation of shear strength of melange foundations at Calavera's Dam. Proceedings of 29th US Society for Dams, Annual Meeting and Conference: Managing our Water Retention Systems, Nashville, Tennessee (Apr): 15.
  4. Medley, E., 1997. Uncertainty in estimates of block volumetric proportions in melange bimrocks. In: P.G. Marinos and G.C. Koukis and G.C. Tsiambaos and G.C. Stournaras (eds.), Proceedings of the International Symposium on Engineering Geology and the Environment, Athens, Greece(June): 267-272.
  5. Lindquist, E.S. and Goodman R.E.,1994. Strength and deformation properties of a physical model melange. In: P.P. Nelson (eds.), Proceedings of the 1th North American Rock Mechanics Symposium, Texas (June): 843-850.
  6. Hoek, E.,Carranza-Torres, C. and Corkum, C., 2002. Hoek-Brown failure criterion -2002 edition 2. NARMS-TAC , Toronto: 267-273.
  7. Barbero, M., Bonini, M. and Borri-Brunetto, M., 2008. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Simulations of Compression Tests on Bimrock. The 12th International Conference of International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG), Goa(Oct): 631-637.
  8. Roadifer, J.W., Forrest, M.P., and Lindquist, E.S., 2009. Evaluation of Shear Strength of Mélange Foundation at Calaveras Dam. Proceedings of 29th US Society for Dams, Annual Meeting and Conference: “Managing our Water Retention Systems, Nashville(Apr): 20-24
  9. Marinos, P.V., 2010. New proposed GSI classification charts for weak or complex rock masses. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, 2010. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress, Patras(May): 1248-1258.
  10. Forrest, M.P., and Roadifer, J.W., 2012. Characterization and Treatment of Mélange and Sandstone Foundation at Calaveras Dam. Proceedings of GeoCongress 2012 State of the Art and Practice in Geotechnical Engineering, Oakland
  11. Tien, Y.M.; Lin, J-S; Kou, M. C.; Lu, Y. C.; Chung, Y. J.; Wu, T. H. and Lee, D. H., 2010. Uncertainty in Estimation of Volumetric Block Proportion of Bimrocks by Using Scanline Method. Proceedings of 44th US Rock Mechanics Symposium and the 5th U.S-Canada Rock Mechanics Symposium, Salt Lake City (June)
  12. Tien, Y.M., Lu, Y.C., and Wu, T.H. 2011. Quantify Uncertainty in Scanline Estimates of Volumetric Fraction of Anisotropic Birmocks. Proceedings of 45th US Rock Mechanics/ Geomechancis Symposium, San Francisco (June).
  13. Tien, Y.M., Lu, Y.C., Chang, H.H., and Chung, Y.C.,2012. Uncertainty of Volumetric Fraction Estimates Using 2-D Measurements. Proceedings of 46th US Rock Mechanics/ Geomechancis Symposium, Chicago (June)
  14. Cheng, H.H., Lu, Y.C., and Tien, Y.M., 2015. Variability of mechanical properties of bimrock. Proceedings of 49th US Rock Mechanics/ Geomechancis Symposium, San Francisco (Nov)
  15. Berry, P., Boldini, D., Bruno, R. and Coli, N., 2009. In situ large size non conventional shear test for the mechanical characterization of a bimrock in The Santa Barbara open pit mine (Italy). Proceedings of 43rd US Rock Mechanics Symposium and the 4th U.S-Canada Rock Mechanics Symposium, Asheville (June)
  16. Medley, E.W., 2008. Engineering the Geological Chaos of Franciscan and Other Bimrocks . Proceedings of 42th US Rock Mechanics Symposium and the 2th U.S-Canada Rock Mechanics Symposium, San Francisco (June).
  17. Liao, J.J., Hsieh, M.H. and Pan, Y.W, 2008. Mechanical Properties of Virtual Block-in-matrix Colluvium. Proceedings of 42th US Rock Mechanics Symposium and the 2th U.S-Canada Rock Mechanics Symposium, San Francisco(July)
  18. Berry, P., Boldini, D. and Coli, N., 2008. Analysis of the block-size distribution in the Shale-Limestone Chaotic Complex (Tuscany, Italy). Proceedings of 42th US Rock Mechanics Symposium and the 2th U.S-Canada Rock Mechanics Symposium, San Francisco(August)
  19. Desai, H., McRae, M.T., Nolting, R.M. and Spreng, S.P., 2008. Tunnel Design and Construction in a Franciscan Melange. Proceedings of 42th US Rock Mechanics Symposium and the 2th U.S-Canada Rock Mechanics Symposium, San Francisco (July).
  20. Wakabayashi, J., 2008. Franciscan Complex, California: problems in recognition of melanges, and the gap between research knowledge and professional practice.. Proceedings of 42th US Rock Mechanics Symposium and the 2th U.S-Canada Rock Mechanics Symposium, San Francisco (July).
  21. Kim, C., Medley, E. and Snell, C., 2004. Shear strength of Franciscan Complex Melange as calculated from back-analysis of a landslide. Fifth International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, New York(Apr).
  22. Goodman, R.E. and Medley, E.W., 1994. Estimating the block volumetric proportions of melanges and similar block-in-matriz rocks (bimrocks). In: P.P. Nelson and S.E Laubach (eds.), Proceedings of the $1^{st}$ North American Rock Mechanics Symposium, Texas(June): 851-858.
  23. Medley, E.W. and Sanz, P.F., 2004. Characterization of Bimrocks (Rock/Soil Mixtures) With Application to Slope Stability Problems. Proceedings: Eurock 2004 & 53rd Geomechancis Colloqium, Salzburg.
  24. Medley, E.W., 1994. Using stereological methods to estimate the volumetric proportions of blocks in melanges and similar block-in-matrix rocks (bimrocks). In: R. Oliveira and L.F. Rodrigues and A.G. Coelho and A.P. Cunha (eds.), Proceedings Seventh International Congress International Association of Enginering Geology, Lisboa (Sept)
  25. Medley, E.W., 2002. Estimating Block Size Distributions of Melanges and Similar Block-in-Matrix Rocks (Bimrocks). In: R. Hammah and W. Bawden and J. Currand and M. Telesnicki (eds.), Proceedings of 5th North American Rock Mechanics Symposium, Toronto(July): 509-606.
  26. Altinsoy, H., Medeley, E.W., Gokceoglu, C. and Sönmez, H. ,2006. Considerations in Developing an Empirical Strength Criterion for Bimrocks. 4th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium, Singapore(Nov)
  27. Sonmez, H, Kasapoglu, K.E., Coskun, A., Tunusluoglu, C., Medley, E. and Zimmerman, R.W., 2009. A conceptual empirical aproach for the overall strength of unwelded bimrocks. Proc. The Regional Symposium of The International Society for Rock Mechanics, EUROCK 2009, Dubrovnik (Oct): 357-360.

In periodicals

  1. Kalender,A., Mendeley, E., Kasapoglu, K.E., Sonmez, H. and Tukusluoglu, A.C., 2014. An approach to predicting the overall strengths of unwelded bimrocks and bimsoils. Engineering Geology, Vol.183: 65-79.
  2. Hitz, B. and Wakayabashi, J., 2012. Unmetamorphosed sedimentary mélange with high-pressure metamorphic blocks in a nascente forearc basin setting. Tectonophysics, Vol.568-569: 124-134.
  3. Ahlgren, C.S. and Goodman, R.E., 2000. Evaluating safety of concrete gravity dam on weak rock: Scott Dam. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenviromental Engineering, Vol.126(5): 429-442.
  4. Hoek, E. and Marinos, P., 2001. Estimating the geotechnical properties of heterogeneous rock masses such as Flysch. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, Vol.60: 85-92.
  5. Button, E., Klima, K., Medley, E. and Riedmüller, W., 2004. Tunnelling in tectonic melanges accomodating the impacts of geomechanical complexities and anisotropic rock mass fabrics. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, Vol.63(2): 109-117.
  6. Hoek, E., 2004. A brief history of the development of the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Rocscience
  7. Medley, E., 2004. Observations on tortous failure surfaces in bimrocks. Felsbau, Vol.(5): 35-43.
  8. Brosch F.J., Klima, K., Medley, E.W. and Riedmüller E., 2004. Engineering geological classification of fault rocks. Technische Universität Graz.
  9. Hoek, E., Marinos, P. and Marinos, V, 2006. Variability of the engineering properties of rock masses quantified by the geological strength index: the case of ophiolites with special emphasis on tunnelling. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, Vol.65: 129-142.
  10. Kahraman, S. and Alber,M.,2006. Estimating unconfined compressive strength and elastic modulus of a fault breccia mixture of weak blocks and strong matrix. International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Minning Sciences, Vol.43(8): 1277-1287.
  11. Hu, R.-L., Tan, R.-J. and Xu, W.-J.,2007. Some geomechanical properties of soil–rock mixtures in the Hutiao Gorge area, China. Géotechnique, Vol.57(3): 255-264.
  12. Felleti, F. and Pietro-Berreta, G., 2009. Expectation of boulder frequency when tunneling in glacial till: A statistical approach based on transition probability. Science Direct, Vol.108(1-2): 43-53.
  13. Medley, E.W. and Zekkos, D., 2011. Geopractitioner approaches to working with antisocial m\'{e}langes. The Geological Society of America, Vol.480: 261-267.
  14. Xu, W-J., Xu, Q. and Hu, R-L., 2001. Study on the shear strength of soil–rock mixture by large scale direct shear test. International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Minning Sciences, Vol.48: 1235-1247.
  15. Paronuzzi P. and Bolla, A., 2012. The prehistoric Vajont rockslide: An updated geological model. Geomorphology.
  16. Marinos, V.P., 2012. Assessing Rock Mass Behaviour for Tunnelling. Environmental & Engineering Geoscience, Vol.15: 327-341.
  17. Afifipour M. and Moarefvand, P., 2014. Failure patterns of geomaterials with block-inmatrix texture: Experimental and numerical evaluation. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, Vol.7(7): 2781-2792.
  18. Alber, M., Fener, M. and Kahraman, S., 2015. An assessment on the indirect determination of the volumetric block proportion of Misis fault breccia (Adana, Turkey). Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, Vol.74(3): 899-907.
  19. Marinos, V.P., 2014. Tunnel behaviour and support associated with the weak rock masses of flysch. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Vol.6(3): 227-239.
  20. Kalender, A., Tunusluoglu, C., Kasapoglu, K.E., Medley, E. and Sonmez, H., 2014. An approach to predicting the overall strengths of unwelded bimrocks and bimsoils. Engineering Geology, Vol.183: 65-79.
  21. Mahdevari, S. and Maarefvand, P.,. Applying ultrasonic waves to evaluate the volumetric block proportion of bimrocks as an alternative method. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, Vol.10(9): 2-12 .
  22. Hay-Yang, Z., Wei, X., Wen-Jie, X. and Zong-Liang, Z., 2016. Large-scale in-situ test for mechanical characterization of soil–rock mixture used in an embankment dam. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol.86: 317-322.
  23. Jiang, L. and Zhang, S., 2015. Soil/Rock Threshold of Colluvial-Deluvial Soil-rock Mixture Based on Numerical Experiment. EJGE, Vol.20(2): 761-776.
  24. Berry, P., Boldini, D. and Coli, N., 2010. In situ non convetional shear test for the mechanical characterisation of a bimrock. Rock Mechanics in Civil and Enviromental Engineering.
  25. Codegone, G., Dilek, Y., Festa, A. and Pini, G.A., 2010. Mélanges and mélange-forming processes: a historical overview and new concepts. International Geology Review, Vol.52(10-12): 1040-1105.
  26. Glawe, U. and Upreti, B.N., 2004. Better Understanding the Strengths of Serpentinite Bimrock and Homogeneous Serpentinite. Felsbau, Vol.22(5): 53-60.
  27. Haneberg, W.C., 2004. Simulation of 3D Block Populations to Characterize Outcrop Sampling Bias in Bimrocks. Felsbau, Vol.22(5): 19-26.
  28. Hoek, E., Marinos, V. and Marinos, P., 2004. The geological strength index: applications and limitations. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, Vol.64(1): 55-65.
  29. Medley, E.W., 2001. Orderly Characterization of Chaotic Franciscan Melange. Felsbau, Vol.19(4): 20-33.
  30. Grossauer, K., Moritz, B. and Shubert,W., 2004. Short Term Prediction of System Behaviour of Shallow Tunnels in Heterogeneous Ground. Felsbau, Vol.22(4): 44-52.
  31. Brosch F.J., Klima, K., Medley, E.W. and Riedmüller E., 2001. Engineering Geological Characterization of Brittle Faults and Classification of Fault Rocks. , Vol.19(4): 13-19.
  32. Medley, E.W., Gokceoglu, C., Nefeslioglu, H.A., Sönmez, H. and Tuncay E., 2004. Relationships between Volumetric Block Proportions and Overall UCS of a Volcanic Bimrock. Felsbau, Vol.22(5): 27-34.
  33. E.W. Medley and Wakabayashi, J., 2004. Geological characterization of Melanges for practitioners. Felsbau, Vol.22(5): 10-18.
  34. Wakabayashi, J. 2004. Contrasting Settings of Serpentinite Bodies, San Francisco Bay Area, California: Derivation from the Subducting Plate vs. Mantle Hanging Wall?. International Geology Review, Vol.46: 1103-1118.
  35. Wakabayashi, J. 2012. Subducted sedimentary serpentinite mélanges: Record of multiple burial–exhumation cycles and subduction erosion. Tectonophysics, Vol.568-569: 230-247."

Theses

  1. E.W. Medley, 1994 (Jul). The engineering characterization of melanges and similar block-in-matrix rocks (Bimrocks). University of California, Berkeley, CA. Ph.D. Thesis.
  2. E.W. Medley, 1994 (Jul). Corrections of The engineering characterization of melanges and similar block-in-matrix rocks (Bimrocks). University of California, Berkeley, CA. Ph.D. Thesis.
  3. E.S. Lindquist, 1994 (Apr). The strength and deformation properties of melange. University of California, Berkeley, CA. Ph.D. Thesis.
  4. H. Püstow, 2001 (February). Tunnelling in a tectonic melange of high structural complexity. Aachean University of Technology , Aachean, Germany. MSc. Thesis: Master Tesis.
  5. S.N. Peter Childs, 2014. An analysis of Engineering and Geological parameters in order to Characterise and Classify Bimrocks. Imperial College London, London, UK. MSc. Thesis: Master Tesis.
  6. Paltrinieri, E., 2015 (Oct). Analysis of TBM tunnelling performance in faulted and highly fractured rocks. ÉCOLE POLYTECHNIQUE FÉDÉRALE DE LAUSANNE, Laussane. Ph.D. Thesis.

Journal

  1. G. Riedmuller, 2004. Felsbau Rock and soil engineering. Bauwesen: Bauveg.

Presentations, posters, field trip guides (miscelaneous)

  1. Y.W. Pan, M.H. Hsieh, J.J. Liao, 2008. Mechanical properties of virtual block-in-matrix colluvium. Presentation at the ARMA Conference 2008, San Francisco CA (July 1st).
  2. E. Medley, 2008. Engineering the geological chaos of Franciscan and other bimrocks. Presentation at the ARMA Conference 2008, San Francisco CA (July 1st).
  3. S.P. Spreng, R.M. Nolting, M.T. McRae, 2008. Tunnel design and construction in a Franciscan Melange. Presentation at the ARMA Conference 2008, San Francisco CA (July 1st).
  4. J. Wakabayashi, 2008. Problems in melange recognition and the gap between research knowledge and professional practice (the fault lies in both research and applied communities). Presentation at the ARMA Conference 2008, San Francisco CA (July 1st).
  5. N. Coli, P. Berry, D. Boldini, 2010. In situ large size non conventional shear tests for the mechanical characterization of a bimrock. Presentation at the Eurock 2010 Conference.
  6. G. Riedmüller, F.J. Brosch, K. Klima, E.W. Medley, 2004. Engineering geological classification of fault rocks. Poster for the EUROCK 2004 Conference.
  7. J. Wakabayashi and E.W. Medley, 2002. Melange and fault rocks exposed in and around an abandoned quarry at the Schmidt Lane recycling center, El Cerrito California. Field trip guide, AEG Conference 2002 San Francisco Section: Tunnels through fault rocks and tectonic melanges.
  8. T. Pilgerstorter, W. Schubert, A. Kluchner, 2014. Results of laboratory tests on artificial block-in-matrix rocks. Presentation.
  9. E. Medley, 2008. A melange: chunks of Franciscan geology in a matrix of tourist chatter. Field trip guide, ARMA Conference 2008, San Francisco.
  10. N. Coli, P. Berry, R. Bruno, D. Boldini, 2010. Advanced methods for the characterization of block-in-matrix rocks (bimrocks). Poster for the Ricerca DICAM, Bologna Italy (June 23rd).